CHEM245 Instrumental Analysis
Department of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics: Chemistry
Course Number and TitleCHEM245 Instrumental Analysis
Number of Credits4 credits
Minimum Number of Instructional Minutes Per Semester4500 minutes
PrerequisitesCHEM230 (C or better)
Other Pertinent InformationThree-hour lecture, one-hour laboratory discussion, and two-hour laboratory per week. Safety glasses or goggles required.
Catalog Course DescriptionThis lecture and laboratory course is an introduction to principles and methods of analysis of industrial materials using appropriate instrumentation. Topics include theory and criteria for choosing instrumentation, sample preparation, chemical separations, spectrophotometers, chromatographs, fluorometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and electrochemical instruments. Computerized data acquisition will be used when available.
Required Course Content and DirectionThis course is a sequel to Quantitative Analysis (CHEM 230) and seeks to extend the student's knowledge of classical methods of chemical analysis to those dealing with instrumental methods. It is designed to meet the requirements of those students majoring in chemical laboratory technology, health-related technologies, and in those sciences and technologies that deal with the pollution of the environment. Analytical chemistry is the backbone of both pharmaceutical and chemical industry. The need for analytical chemists is acute. The methods are mostly instrumental and the goals are automation and rapid acquisition of data. Students entering the course should have a background in mathematics that includes either College Algebra or Mathematics for Technology I and II. Quantitative Analysis is also a prerequisite for this course.
As one of the Natural Sciences, chemistry has evolved out of careful observation and experimentation; as technology evolves, so does the body of chemical knowledge. The advances in technology with software driven instrumentation have pushed the limits of detection to even lower levels. This course will integrate the technological advances within this area and their impact in the formulation of chemical principles and their applications. Furthermore, the laboratory component of the course will help to illustrate and apply some of these technological advances.
The major foci are on the principles and capabilities of selected analytical instruments rather than their design and construction. The necessary theoretical background for the intelligent use of the instruments is given. Emphasis is on the operating parameters associated with each of the instruments studied.
Operational details are covered sufficiently to give students an adequate understanding of the techniques used without being overwhelmed by details. Students will prepare their own samples for analysis, operate the instrument, collect the data and interpret it, and report the results in an appropriate format. Students are required to solve a variety of practical problems by algebraic and graphical means. The scope of the course is limited to those instruments and techniques that find the widest use in the laboratories of chemical companies, hospitals, and governmental regulatory agencies. Samples selected for analysis by students will include a variety of consumer products and industrial materials of natural and synthetic origin. Procedures followed are those recognized as yielding reliable results and in general use. These procedures are those adopted by one or more of the following authorities: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Bureau of Standards, American Society for Testing and Materials, the American Petroleum Institute, the American Chemical Society, and the U.S. Food and Drug Agency.
The overall goal of this course is to provide students with a sufficient understanding of the principles, laws, and theories of analytical chemistry to enable them to successfully analyze samples provided using selected instrumental methods. The student will be competent to follow a standard procedure, to operate the instrument in a safe manner, to collect suitable data, to evaluate the reliability of the data collected, and to report the results in an appropriate form as would be required of a competent laboratory technician.
- Course Learning Goals:
- identify a variety of analytical instruments, their uses, capabilities and limitations;
- evaluate different instrumental methods, based on such factors as sensitivity, time required, selectivity, purchase cost of instruments involved, etc.;
- demonstrate appropriate use of instrumentation by developing a working knowledge and control of the operating parameters associated with each instrument studied; and
- demonstrate acquisition of basic laboratory skills as they pertain to: safety, management of both qualitative and quantitative work, ability to draw conclusions from experiments, and understanding the importance of technological advances for the development of scientific knowledge.
- Core Learning Goals (if applicable)
Students will be able to
Planned Sequence of Topics and/or Learning Activities:Course Outline:
- Brief introduction to the treatment of analytical data, including error analysis
- Classification of analytical methods and the types of instrumental methods
- Consideration of electromagnetic radiation
- Molecular UV/VIS/Near IR absorption
- IR absorption
- Atomic Absorption (AA)spectroscopy
- Flame sources
- Plasma sources
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
- Electroanalytical Methods
- Chromatographic Techniques
- Mass Spectroscopy, and GC-MS
- Radiochemical Methods
While specific laboratory experiments vary depending on the instructor and the semester, the following list is representative of the experiments that are used.
- Safety Practices in the Chemistry Laboratory
- Determination of a Mixture of Cobalt and Nickel (UV/Vis spec.)
- Study of Electronic Transitions in Organic Molecules (i.e., acetone in water)
- IR Absorption Spectra (Study of Aldehydes and Ketones)
- Determination of Calcium, Iron, and Copper in Food by Atomic Absorption
- Quantitative Analysis of Mixtures by Gas Chromatography (i.e., chloroform and carbon tetrachloride)
- Separation of Carbohydrates by HPLC
- Determination of Caffeine in Beverages by HPLC
- Potentiometric Titration of a Chloride-Iodide Mixture
- Cyclic Voltammetry of the Ferrocyanide/Ferricyanide Couple
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Learning Activities: Instruction aims to enable the student to:
- understand the principles underlying the operation of each of the following instruments: polarograph, millivolt potentiometer, recording spectrometers, temperature programmed gas-liquid chromatograph, HPLC, pH-meters, fluorometer, mass spectrometer, NMR, AA, and electrodeposition apparatus;
- describe the operational parameters for each of the analytical instruments studied;
- apply the knowledge of the various analytical methods used including: standard addition, direct comparison, internal standard, and the absolute method;
- carry out calibration of instruments, preparation of a sample for analysis, safe handling of the sample during the analysis, and proper disposal of the sample after completion of the analysis;
- describe the manner in which the microprocessor can be interfaced with a gas-liquid chromatograph to control the temperature of the column;
- use techniques for recording and evaluating analytical data derived from instruments; i.e., use of electronic recorders equipped with integrator, use of analog to digital convertors interfaced with instruments to acquire quantitative information;
- solve a variety of numerical problems dealing with the analysis of samples using the various instrumental methods studied; these problems will be solved using the electronic calculator, as well as by graphical techniques;
- understand appropriate ways of reporting the results of analysis including: percentage by weight , parts of analyte per million parts of sample, parts of analyte per billion parts of sample; and
- determine the degree of purity of chemicals required in the analysis and the steps necessary to keep the sample free from outside contamination.
Assessment Methods for Core Learning Goals:
- Assessment Methods for Course Learning Goals
- Assessment Methods for Core Learning Goals (if applicable)
Course learning goals will be continuously assessed by periodic written examinations, class exercises, laboratory preparation, laboratory results, laboratory reports, and assigned work.
Reference, Resource, or Learning Materials to be used by Students:Students will use the approved text, laboratory modules and handouts, laboratory and demonstration equipment, the library, science learning center, and computer programs. Please refer to the course format for specific information.
Teaching Methods EmployedThe lecture portion is presented in a lecture/discussion format. Laboratory and lectures are arranged in such a way as to reinforce the topics covered in the course. Both lecture and laboratory are taught by the same instructor.
Review/Approval Date - 2/99; Revised 6/08