CHEM230 Quantitative Analysis

Department of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics: Chemistry

I. Course Number and Title
CHEM230 Quantitative Analysis
II. Number of Credits
4 credits
III. Number of Instructional Minutes
IV. Prerequisites
CHEM144 (C or better), or CHEM122 (C or better), or a grade of C or better in both MATH103 and CHEM102
V. Other Pertinent Information
Three-hour lecture, one-hour laboratory discussion, and two-hour laboratory per week. Safety glasses or goggles required.
VI. Catalog Course Description
The principles and applications of gravimetric and volumetric analysis are reviewed in this lecture and laboratory course. Topics include the theory for selecting various analytical methods, separation techniques - precipitation, extraction and complexation, sources of error, data handling, and error analysis. Solving numerical problems is emphasized.
VII. Required Course Content and Direction
With increasing concern for our environment and a more enlightened population, the demand for good analytical methods and qualified personnel to carry out these methodologies is on the rise. Quantitative methods can be used to detect hazardous materials, to analyze raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, or to enforce quality control. Students intending to follow a career in chemical laboratory technology or in chemistry-related fields must have knowledge of methods, techniques, and instruments used for analysis. These analytical data are the basis of all decision-making processes from the production of semi-conductors to smog control. Analytical Chemistry is concerned with chemical composition -- qualitative analysis with what is present and quantitative analysis with how much is present. Quantitative analysis is the subject of this course.

A method of quantitative analysis is a set of laboratory operations arranged in a specific sequence, based on different chemical reactions and on measurements of appropriate chemical and/or physical properties. All of the steps in the sequence are equally important to obtain meaningful analytical data. The choice of operations and techniques comprising the sequence is the outcome of practical experience and theoretical understanding of these reactions and properties. A successful outcome depends on skillful execution. The choice of method is as important as the execution.

As one of the Natural Sciences, chemistry has evolved out of careful observation and experimentation; as technology evolves, so does the body of chemical knowledge. This course will integrate important technological advances and their impact in the formulation of chemical principles and their applications. Furthermore, the laboratory component of the course will help to illustrate and apply some of these technological advances.

This course will enable students to master different skills necessary to carry out a quantitative analysis, and will provide students with the basic principles of these chemical reactions, techniques, and measurements. Mastery of these skills will make an analyst with proper background to develop the judgment needed for the prudent choice of an analytical method, and the ability to execute it.

The lecture will demonstrate that starting with the idea of chemical equilibria, the whole concept of analytical chemistry can evolve in a sequential manner:

  1. the study of chemical equilibria and chemical kinetics.
  2. methods of separation as consequences of chemical equilibria and rates of reactions.
  3. correlation of various concepts with controllable and measurable quantities.
  4. solving of analytical problems.
  5. solving of numerical problems.

The laboratory work emphasizes the learning of basic skills, and the application of those skills in following an analytical procedure. Students are encouraged to design their own analytical procedure rather than following a set procedure every time.

  1. Course Learning Goals

    Students will:

    1. identify the components of chemical analysis;
    2. demonstrate basic skills of gravimetric, volumetric, spectrophotometric, electroanalytical, and chromatographic methods;
    3. perform accurate measurement of weight, volume, color intensity, and electrical potential;
    4. demonstrate acquisition of basic laboratory skills as they pertain to: safety, management of both qualitative and quantitative work, ability to draw conclusions from experiments, and understanding the importance of technological advances for the development of scientific knowledge; and
    5. evaluate the reliability of data, using both statistical and non-statistical methods.
  2. Planned Sequence of Topics and/or Learning Activities

    Course Outline:

    1. Review: formula weight, moles, molarity, expression of analytical results.
    2. Handling of Analytical Data: significant figures, defined and measured values, precision and accuracy, rules for rounding off, error analysis.
    3. General Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium: equilibrium state, mass action, equilibrium constant, chemical kinetics, activation energy, catalysis, effect on the equilibrium constant of factors, such as concentration, pressure, temperature, and catalysts.
    4. Gravimetric Analysis: conditions and the mechanism of precipitation, contamination, washing and filtering of precipitates, sources of error, sample calculations.
    5. Principles of Volumetric Analysis: basic concepts and calculations.
    6. Acid-base Titrations: principles, concept and the measurement of pH, detection of end points, titration curves, and various acid-base systems.
    7. Redox Titrations: principles, the electrode potential, Nernst equation and some typical redox systems.
    8. Brief introduction to instrumental analysis and separation science (to include GC, HPLC, electroanalytical methods, and spectrophotometry)

    Laboratory Experiments:
    While specific laboratory experiments vary depending on the instructor and the semester, the following list is representative of the experiments that are used:

    1. Check-in, Safety Regulations
    2. Gravimetric Analysis of Iron as Fe2O3
    3. Gravimetric Determination of Nickel using Dimethylglyoxime
    4. Determination of the pH of Hair Shampoos
    5. Acid-Base Titration -- Determining Replaceable Hydrogens in an Acid
    6. Determination of Iron (volumetric using dichromate)
    7. Determination of Calcium as Oxalate (volumetric using permanganate)
    8. Hardness of Water (using EDTA)
    9. Chloride in a Soluble Chloride using Fajans Method
    10. Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Vitamin C Tablets (Iodometry)
    11. Determination of the Iodine Number of Oils
    12. Electrolytic Determination of Copper

    Learning Activities:
    Instruction aims to enable the student to:

    1. utilize the knowledge gained from the study of chemical equilibria and chemical kinetics in working with functional definitions, mathematical formulations, and application of the concepts to the most common chemical reactions used in analysis;
    2. understand equilibria as a function of pH, complex formation, common ion effect, concentration, and temperature;
    3. apply the concepts learned in gravimetric analysis to: solubility equilibria, properties of precipitates, factors affecting precipitation and crystallization, methods of precipitation and theory of washing, as well as using gravimetric techniques as a method for sample separation;
    4. comprehend the theory of volumetric analysis as it applies to the concepts of equivalent weight, concentrations, preparation and standardization of solutions, as well as the use of volumetric analysis in precipitation, acid-base complex formation, and oxidation-reduction reactions;
    5. recognize other types of analytical methods: spectrophotometric analysis, electroanalytical methods, and other methods for separation, i.e., extraction, ion-exchange, and chromatography;
    6. demonstrate the proper use of basic laboratory equipment, such as analytical balances, burets, pipets, volumetric flasks, drying ovens, desiccators, spectrophotometers, potentiometers, voltmeters, ammeters, multimeters, gas chromatographs, and coulometers;
    7. manage different laboratory operations: preparation of solutions, precipitation, crystallization, filtration, extraction, distillation, evaporation, drying, weighing, titration, reading of meters, and reading of charts;
    8. carry out the preparation and standardization of laboratory reagents;
    9. conduct calibration of equipment;
    10. solve numerical and graphical problems from the collected data;
    11. understand different methods of reporting and evaluating results, including error analysis;
    12. perform actual analysis following a sequence of operations, and write up the pertinent laboratory reports; and
    13. use appropriate current technology in the laboratory to obtain data and understand the impact that recent technology has on the field.
  3. Assessment Methods for Course Learning Goals

    Course learning goals are continuously assessed by periodic written examinations, class exercises, laboratory preparation, laboratory results, laboratory reports, and assigned work.
  4. Reference, Resource, or Learning Materials to be used by Student:

    Students will use the approved text, laboratory modules and handouts, laboratory and demonstration equipment, the library, science learning center, and computer programs. Please refer to the course syllabus for specific information.

Review/Approval Date - 2/99; Revised 6/08; New Core 8/2015