CHEM244 Chemistry III - Analytical Chemistry
Department of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics: Chemistry
Course Number and TitleCHEM244 Chemistry III - Analytical Chemistry
Number of Credits5 credits
Minimum Number of Instructional Minutes Per Semester5250 minutes
PrerequisitesCHEM122 (C or better)
Other Pertinent InformationThree-hour lecture, one-hour laboratory discussion, and three-hour laboratory per week. Safety glasses or goggles required.
Catalog Course DescriptionThe concepts of structure and bonding, chemical equilibrium, chemical kinetics, and chemical thermodynamics to quantitative analysis and to the study of the chemistry of the elements are applied to this lecture and laboratory course. Laboratory techniques include volumetric, gravimetric, and spectrophotometric analysis; electroanalysis, chromatographic analysis, and statistical error analysis.
Required Course Content and DirectionAnalytical processes are important to persons who plan careers in natural sciences, engineering, and medicine. These disciplines require an understanding of the detection and quantitative estimation of chemical species. It is highly desirable that a science major student should have a course in analytical processes, even when it is not a required course. Analytical chemistry is such a course, and is designed for science majors intending to pursue further studies in their respective field.
The operations of an analysis involve chemical reactions and /or measurement of chemical and physical properties. The choice of methods and techniques comprising the sequence of operations is the outcome of practical experience as well as theoretical understanding of these reactions and their properties. A successful outcome depends on skillful execution. Integration of theory and practice is, therefore, a necessity and quantitative analysis provides that integration. Thus, the emphasis of this course is on the application of theoretical principles (learned in earlier courses) to chemical analysis in general, and quantitative analysis in particular, as well as on learning basic analytical techniques. As one of the Natural Sciences, chemistry has evolved out of careful observation and experimentation; as technology evolves, so does the body of chemical knowledge. This course will integrate technological advances within this area and their impact in the formulation of chemical principles and their applications. Furthermore, the laboratory component of the course will help to illustrate and apply some of these technological advances.
The lectures will emphasize:
- the application of chemical concepts (i.e., structure, bonding, chemical and physical properties) in choosing the reactions to be used and measurements to be made.
- the application of chemical equilibria, thermodynamics and kinetics, to the chemical reactions used.
- correlations of the concepts with various controllable and measurable quantities.
- solving of analytical problems.
- solving of numerical problems.
The focus of the lecture part is teaching students to formulate methods and techniques to be used for analyzing species in a given sample, and to make correct interpretation of the collected data.
The laboratory work will emphasize:
- practice of the basic skills.
- testing the understanding of students by encouraging them to design their own analytical procedure rather than following a set procedure every time.
- Course Learning Goals
- describe the components of chemical analysis;
- apply the concepts of structure and chemical bonding to chemical and physical properties of the analyte, and recognize the choice of reactions available based on the chemical and physical properties of the analyte;
- propose the proper sequence of reactions and operations based on the concepts of chemical equilibria, electron transfer, chemical thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics;
- demonstrate basic skills using gravimetric, volumetric, spectrophotometric, electroanalytical, and chromatographic methods, and the measurement of weight, volume, color intensity, electric potential, and evaluate the reliability of data, using both statistical and non-statistical methods; and
- demonstrate acquisition of basic laboratory skills as they pertain to: safety, management of both qualitative and quantitative work, ability to draw conclusions from experiments, and understanding the importance of technological advances for the development of scientific knowledge.
- Core Learning Goals (if applicable)
Students will be able to
Planned Sequence of Topics and/or Learning Activities:Course Outline:
- Review of some basic concepts: thermodynamics, equilibrium constant, kinetics.
- Group properties: a reconsideration of the periodic classification of the elements.
- Activity and activity coefficients: some basic ideas and the introduction of the Van't Hoff factor. Also, ion pairing, molecular association, analytical concentration/actual concentration.
- Evaluation of data: significant figures, kinds of errors, standard deviation, statistical treatment of results.
- Gravimetric analysis: prerequisites for a gravimetric analysis, precipitation, sources of errors, methods of calculation.
- Volumetric methods: some preliminary concepts, calculations.
- Equilibrium: detailed consideration of the equilibrium constant and its application to: precipitation (solubility product), acid-base reactions, indicators, buffers, and other areas.
- Electroanalytical chemistry: consideration of electrode potentials, electrochemical cells, Nernst equation, cyclic voltammetry, polarography and other electroanalytical methods.
- Volumetric analysis: more detailed consideration of volumetric methods: Preconditions for an acceptable volumetric method, potentiometric methods, redox titrations, complex formation, interplay of thermodynamic and kinetic factors.
- Molecular spectroscopy: theoretical background for the study of spectroscopy, UV/VIS, IR techniques, application to elucidation of molecular structural problems and concentration.
While specific laboratory experiments vary depending on the instructor and the semester, the following list is representative of the experiments that are used.
- Safety Practices in the Chemistry Laboratory.
- Calibration of Measuring Glass Equipment.
- Determination of a Mixture of Cobalt and Nickel (UV/Vis spec.).
- IR Spectra of Aldehydes and Ketones.
- Composition and Stability Constant of a Complex by UV/Vis.
- Chloride Ion Determination by Potentiometric Methods.
- Copper and Nickel Determination by Electrogravimetry.
- Study of Electronic Transitions in Organic Molecules (i.e., acetone in water).
- Preparation of Ammonium Trisoxalatoferrate (III) and the Analysis for Nitrogen, Iron and Oxalate to Determine the Composition.
- Analysis of Brass for Copper, Zinc, Tin, and Lead.
- Ionization Constant of Acetic Acid by Conductance Methods
- Reaction of Ethyl Acetate with Hydroxyl Ion Monitored by Electrical Conductance.
Learning Activities: Instruction aims to enable the student to:
- describe chemical and physical properties of chemical species on the basis of structure and chemical bonding;
- define chemical equilibrium and carry out mathematical calculations involving various equilibrium constants;
- use the concept of chemical kinetics and do mathematical calculations of rate constants;
- observe the occurrence and completion of a chemical reaction by visual means, use of chemical indicators, or instrumental means;
- understand solubility equilibria and solubility as a function of pH, complex formation, concentration;
- understand gravimetric analysis and its application to solubility equilibria, properties of the precipitate, factors affecting precipitation and crystallization, methods of precipitation and theory of washing;
- comprehend the theory of volumetric analysis as it applies to the concepts of equivalent weight, concentrations, preparation and standardization of solutions. Also understand the use of volumetric analysis in precipitation, acid-base complex formation and oxidation-reduction reactions; and
- recognize other types of analytical methods, such as spectrophotometric analysis, electroanalytical methods, and methods for separation, i.e., extraction, ion-exchange and chromatography.
Each study generally consists of the following, as applicable: working and/or functional definitions, mathematical definitions, mathematical interpretation, experimental proofs and/or techniques, numerical problems, and comprehensive and comparative discussions.
- Demonstrate the proper use of basic laboratory equipment: analytical balances, burets, pipets, volumetric flask, drying oven, desiccator, spectrophotometer, potentiometer, voltmeter, ammeter, multimeter, gas chromatographs, coulometer, electronic calculator.
- Manage different laboratory operations: solutions, precipitation, crystallization, filtration, extraction, distillation, evaporation, drying, weighing, titration, reading of meters, reading of charts.
- Carry out the preparation and standardization of laboratory reagents.
- Conduct calibration of equipment.
- Obtain numerical and graphical solutions from the collected data.
- Understand different methods of reporting, and evaluating results.
- Carry out an actual analysis following a sequence of operations using various equipment. Each student must do:
- at least one analysis involving extraction.
- at least one analysis involving use of ion-exchange resins.
- Use appropriate current technology in the laboratory to obtain data and understand the impact that this latest technology has on the field.
Assessment Methods for Core Learning Goals:
- Assessment Methods for Course Learning Goals
- Assessment Methods for Core Learning Goals (if applicable)
Course learning goals will be continuously assessed by periodic written examinations, class exercises, laboratory preparation, laboratory results, laboratory reports, and assigned work.
Reference, Resource, or Learning Materials to be used by Students:Students will use the approved text, laboratory modules and handouts, laboratory and demonstration equipment, the library, science learning center, and computer programs. Please refer to the course format for specific information.
Teaching Methods EmployedThe lecture portion is presented in a lecture/discussion format. Laboratory and lectures are arranged in such a way as to reinforce the topics covered in the course. Both lecture and laboratory are taught by the same instructor.
Review/Approval Date - 2/99; Revised 6/08