CHEM242 Biochemistry

Department of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics: Chemistry

I. Course Number and Title
CHEM242 Biochemistry
II. Number of Credits
3 credits
III. Number of Instructional Minutes
IV. Prerequisites
CHEM122 (C or better); or CHEM220 (C or better); or a grade of C or better in both CHEM121 and BIOL121, plus CHEM122 as a co-requisite
See prerequisites
V. Other Pertinent Information
Three-hour lecture
VI. Catalog Course Description
This is a lecture course for students majoring in chemistry, biology or pre-allied health. Emphasis will be placed on the chemistry of biomolecules and their utilization in intermediary metabolism. The principles of bioenergetics and the integration of metabolic control are developed.
VII. Required Course Content and Direction

hemistry 242, Biochemistry, is an advanced level chemistry course for science majors. It is designed to serve both as a terminal course for biology, chemistry, and engineering majors who wish to become familiar with the way in which the functions of living things depend upon the properties and reactions of chemical compounds, and as survey course for those students planning to major in a medical science at either the undergraduate or graduate level.

Students registering for Chemistry 242 must have a good background in chemistry and mathematics at least through college algebra. Knowledge of chemical bonding and solution chemistry is absolutely necessary. Biochemistry applies physicochemical principles to biological systems. Topics covered in detail in previous general chemistry courses, such as acid-base theory, kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics and electrochemistry, are reviewed in Chemistry 242. Biological activity depends upon the integration of all these concepts within the structural framework of the cell.

As one of the Natural Sciences, chemistry has evolved out of careful observation and experimentation; as technology evolves, so does the body of chemical knowledge. This course will integrate pertinent technological advances and their impact in the formulation of chemical principles and their applications.

Biochemistry provides students with the necessary background to understand the basic molecular logic of living organisms. The course is divided into two sections. The first section examines the structures and properties of the characteristic organic compounds of living cells. The second section emphasizes the interaction of these molecules with one another to produce adenosine triphosphate and the utilization of this compound in cell function.

The events of the major metabolic pathways must be as familiar to the student as the alphabet. However, memorization does not represent understanding, it is just the beginning. The facts memorized must be integrated with one another. The reasons for these facts are the basis of biochemistry. These reasons are best summarized by looking at the relationship of function to structure and at the various regulatory mechanisms by which a cell or organism controls its own activities.

Intermediary metabolism is surveyed in terms of the sources of matter and energy necessary for the metabolic process, the convergence and divergence of the degradative and synthetic pathways, and the various mechanisms by which chemical energy is transferred. The relationship between cell structures and metabolic activities is stressed along with the key control points in metabolism. If time permits, the principles of biochemistry are applied to current concerns, such as pharmacology and toxicology.

  1. Course Learning Goals

    Course Learning Goals

    Students will:

    1. apply the basic physicochemical principles presented in previous general chemistry courses to biological systems;
    2. assemble the vast amount of biochemical facts into the major concepts providing the logical framework for modern biochemistry;
    3. recognize the complexity of the laboratory work necessary to unravel biological facts, by appreciating the difficulty of working with biological systems, and understanding chemical model systems and their applications; and
    4. demonstrate an understanding of the importance of pertinent technological advances for the development of scientific knowledge.
  2. Planned Sequence of Topics and/or Learning Activities

    Course Outline:

    1. Biochemistry: an Introduction
      1. Molecular Basis of Life
      2. Intermolecular Forces
      3. Properties of Water
      4. Hydrophobic Attractions
    2. Proteins
      1. Structure
      2. Function
    3. Oxygen Transporting Proteins
      1. Myoglobin
      2. Hemoglobin
      3. Relationship Between Structure and Function
    4. Enzymes
      1. Kinetics
      2. Mechanisms
      3. Regulation
    5. Introduction to Metabolism
      1. Basic Concepts
      2. Energy Balances
      3. Energy Utilization
    6. Carbohydrate Metabolism
      1. Glycolysis
      2. Citric Acid Cycle
      3. Oxidative Phosphorylation
      4. Pentose Phosphate Pathway
      5. Gluconeogenesis
      6. Glycogen Metabolism
    7. Fatty Acid Metabolism
      1. Degradation
      2. Synthesis
    8. Metobolic Control

    Learning Activities:
    Instruction aims to enable the student to:

    1. describe the properties of water in terms of their importance to living organisms; understand the concepts of hydrogen bonding, colligative properties, ionization, Law of Mass Action, ion product, pH, acids and bases, titration, and buffers;
    2. discuss the structures and properties of the major classes of biomolecules in terms of their biological functions: amino acids, peptides, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides and nucleic acids, vitamins and coenzymes;
    3. understand the interaction of biomolecules with one another to produce adenosine triphosphate: glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the phosphogluconate pathway, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid degradation, and amino acid oxidation;
    4. describe the function of ATP in the free energy requirements of biosynthesis or chemical work, contraction and motility or mechanical work, and active transport of nutrients and inorganic ions or osmotic work;
    5. outline the biosynthesis of some biomolecules;
    6. discuss the integration of metabolism and its control in mammals; and
    7. recognize the importance of biochemistry to the fields of pharmacology.
  3. Assessment Methods for Course Learning Goals

    Course learning goals are continuously assessed by periodic written examinations, class exercises, and assigned work.
  4. Reference, Resource, or Learning Materials to be used by Student:

    Students will use the approved text, the library, and the science learning center. Please refer to the course syllabus for specific information.

Review/Approval Date - 2/99; Revised 6/08; New Core 8/2015